The influenza type A virus causes avian influenza (AI), which infects poultry such as chickens, turkeys, domestic ducks, geese, and wild birds. The AI viruses are classified by two groups of proteins: “H” (hemagglutinin) and “N” (neuraminidase). There are 16 H (H1-H16) and 9 N (N1-N9). They are further classified by their pathogenicity, which is the ability to produce disease in domestic chickens.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus strains are extremely infectious, often fatal to chickens, and can spread rapidly from flock-to-flock.
Low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus strains occur naturally in wild migratory waterfowl and shorebirds without causing illness. LPAI can infect domestic poultry, creating little or no signs of illness.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) first detected the Eurasian H5 HPAI in a wild American wigeon in South Carolina in mid-January 2022. Eurasian H5 HP had not been detected in a wild bird in the United States since 2016. The USDA immediately began tracking the progress of the disease in wild birds. The first commercial flock to be confirmed for HPAI was in Indiana in early February 2022. Since this first detection, several other states have confirmed infected flocks including South Dakota, Wisconsin, and Missouri. USDA is closely tracking the spread, developing tools and procedures for farmers to implement to mitigate the spread of the disease.
USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has compiled resources through their “Defend the Flock” program. Biosecurity is critical to prevent the infection of commercial flocks. Free information and procedures can be found on the USDA APHIS website. The Resource Center has biosecurity template procedures in English, Spanish, Chinese, Vietnamese and Tagalog languages. These procedures include written documentation as well as videos and webinars.The resources can be found here: https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/animalhealth/animal-disease-information/avian/defend-the-flock-program/dtf-resources/dtf-resources
in 30 seconds on food contact surfaces. Sanitizers reduce 99.9% or 3 log of specific test bacteria in 5 minutes on non-food contact surfaces. Sanitizers reduce the bacterial contamination to levels safe as determined by public health authorities. In food processing, sanitizers are used on a routine basis at the end of the cleaning and sanitation procedures. Sanitizers are routinely used on food contact surfaces.
Disinfectants kill a wider range of microorganisms including bacteria, fungi and viruses. EPA Test Guideline OCSPP 810.2200: Disinfectants for Use on Environmental Surfaces provides guidelines for antimicrobial pesticides intended to be used as disinfectants on hard, non-porous surfaces. OCSPP 810.2200 can be referenced for organism specific kill rate criteria. All products should meet the performance standard associated with the method and microbe at ≤10 minutes of contact. Disinfectant levels are not generally used on food contact surfaces and not used on people. If disinfectant levels are used on tabletops (i.e. in cafeterias) EPA considers this a food contact surface and a rinse must be conducted post disinfection process.
Sanitizers are used at much lower concentrations than disinfectants and, generally, at less contact time.
EPA Summary of Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
EPA Efficacy Testing
AI is a virus and mitigation requires disinfectant level sanitation. Read the product label for the proper concentration and contact time.
This Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released List M: Register Antimicrobial Products with Label Claims for Avian Influenza (AI). Hydrite has several products available for use on this list. (See Hydrite Product List for Antimicrobial Products with Label Claims for Avian Influenza). Use products according to label.
USDA APHIS has a templated procedure for cleaning and disinfecting poultry enclosure areas.
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